5.4 Carbon cycle research in Hungary

Carbon cycle related research including measurements has a long tradition in Hungary going back to decades and is carried out by several research groups by now. An overview of the history and results of these activities for CO2 and non-CO2 GHGs is provided by Haszpra (ed) (2011).

Eddy covariance (EC) technique is used at three sites in Hungary to monitor ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange over grasslands and croplands (Table 5.3). EC measurements started at Hegyhátsál site in 1997 to monitor CO2 fluxes over a heterogeneous agricultural landscape. The measurements are unique in the country being the only measurements over cropland and due to the measurements height, which is 82 m providing regional scale information on the surrounding area. CO2 mixing ratio measurements started in 1994 at the site, followed by measurements of other GHGs (CH4, CO, H2, N2O, SF6).

Soil CO2 and CH4 emissions were measured at sites of different soil and vegetation type including agricultural land (Tóth et al., 2010), grassland (Horváth et al., 2008).

Table 5.3. Eddy covariance monitoring sites in Hungary

Site name and ID



measurement height


Bugac HU-Bug

46.6917, 19.6017


4 m


Hegyhátsál HU-He1

46.9559, 16.6520


82 m


Hegyhátsál 2 HU-He2

46.9558, 16.6556


3 m


Mátra HU-Mat

47.8418, 19.7260


4 m



Barcza Z.. 2001. Long term atmosphere/biosphere exchange of CO2 in Hungary - Ph.D. Thesis http://nimbus.elte.hu/~bzoli/thesis. Eötvös Loránd University, Department of Meteorology, Budapest.

Haszpra L.. 2011. Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases: The Hungarian Perspective. ISBN 978-90-481-9949-5 (Print). ISBN 978-90-481-9950-1 (Online).

Haszpra L.. 1995. Carbon dioxide concentration measurements at a rural site in Hungary. Tellus. 47B:14-22.

Haszpra L., Barcza Z., Bakwin P.S., Berger B.W., Davis K.J., and Weidinger T.. 2001. Measuring system for the long-term monitoring of biosphere/atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide. J Geophys Res. 106D:3057-3070..

Horváth L., Grosz B., Machon A., Balogh J., Pintér K., and Czóbel S.. 2008. Influence of soil type on N2O and CH4 soil fluxes and in Hungarian grasslands, IPCC Fourth Assesment Report: Climate Change. Commun Ecol. Volume 9. Supplement 1. 75-80.. 10.1556/ComEc.9.2008.S.11.

National Inventory Report for 1985-2006 Hungary (available online: http://klima.kvvm.hu/documents/32/NIR_HUN_080415.pdf). Hungarian Meteorological Service, Greenhouse Gas Inventory Division. 2008.

Tóth E., Barcza Z., Birkás M., Gelybó Gy., Zsembeli J., Bottlik L., Davis K.J., Haszpra L., Kem A., Kljun N., Koós S., Kovács Gy., Stingli A., and Farkas Cs.. 2010. Measurements and estimations of biosphere-atmosphere exchange of greenhouse gases - Arable lands. In: Haszpra L (ed.): Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases: The Hungarian Perspective Springer. ISBN: 978-90-481-9949-5.