Atmospheric Chemistry

István Lagzi

Róbert Mészáros

Györgyi Gelybó

Ádám Leelőssy

This book is freely available for research and educational purposes. Reproduction in any form is prohibited without written permission of the owner.

Made in the project entitled "E-learning scientific content development in ELTE TTK" with number TÁMOP-4.1.2.A/1-11/1-2011-0073. Consortium leader: Eötvös Loránd University, Consortium Members: ELTE Faculties of Science Student Foundation, ITStudy Hungary Ltd.


Table of Contents

Preface
1. The structure and composition of the atmosphere
1.1. Formation of the Earth atmosphere
1.2. A short history of the atmospheric chemistry
1.3. Atmospheric composition
1.4. Vertical structure of the atmosphere
1.4.1. Vertical change of composition
1.4.2. Vertical temperature changes
1.5. The planetary boundary layer
2. Emission of air pollutants
2.1. Source types of air pollutants
2.2. Natural emission sources
2.2.1. Terrestrial ecosystems
2.2.2 Aquatic Ecosystems
2.2.3 Forest fires
2.2.4 Volcanic and tectonic activities
2.2.5 Lightning
2.3 Anthropogenic emission sources
2.3.1 Industrial energy production and use
2.3.2. Transport
2.3.3 Agriculture
2.3.4 Waste management
2.3.5 Biomass burning
2.3.6. Anthropogenic sources of air pollutants by different sectors
3. Basics of the reaction kinetics
3.1. Differential rate law
3.2. Integrated rate law
3.3. Three-body reaction
3.4. Photochemical reaction (Photolysis)
3.5. Radicals in the atmosphere
3.6. Arrhenius Equation
3.7. Half-life
3.8. Reaction mechanism
3.9. The quasi steady-state approximation (QSSA)
3.10. Application of a reaction mechanism
4. Reactions of air pollutants in the atmosphere
4.1 General notes
4.2 Reactions of atmospheric oxygen
4.3 General reactions in the troposphere and stratosphere
5. Biogeochemical cycle of carbon
5.1. The natural carbon cycle
5.1.1. Terrestrial processes
5.1.2. Oceanic processes
5.1.3 Geological processes
5.2 Methane
5.2.1 Sources and sinks of atmospheric methane
5.3 Human disruption of carbon cycle
5.4 Carbon cycle research in Hungary
6. Nitrogen compounds
6.1. Nitrogen fixation
6.2. Nitrification
6.3. Denitrification
6.4. Nitrogen deposition
6.5. Anthropogenic sources of nitrogen compounds
6.6 Atmospheric reactions of nitrogen species
7. Sulphur compounds
7.1. Sulphur oxides (SOx)
7.1.1. Reaction sulphur dioxide in the atmosphere
7.2. Hydrogen sulphide (H2S)
7.3. Carbonyl sulphide (COS)
7.4 Carbon disulfide (CS2)
8. Ozone
8.1. Stratospheric ozone
8.1.1. A short history
8.1.2. Natural balance of stratospheric ozone
8.1.3. Circulation patterns in the stratosphere
8.1.4. Gas-phase chemistry in the stratosphere
8.1.5. Polar ozone chemistry
8.2 Tropospheric ozone
8.2.1. Global tropospheric ozone budget
8.2.2. Ozone production in the troposphere
8.2.3. Sinks of the tropospheric ozone
8.2.4. Spatial and temporal variability of ozone in the near surface layer
9. Aerosol particles
9.1. Sources and sinks of atmospheric aerosols
9.1.1. Sources of aerosol particles
9.1.2. Sink processes
9.2 Physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols
9.2.1. Concentrations:
9.2.2. Size distribution:
9.2.3. Chemical composition
9.2.4. Water solubility
9.2.5. Atmospheric lifetime
9.3. Effects of atmospheric aerosols
9.3.1. Direct effects: direct radiative forcing due the scattering radiation.
9.3.2. Indirect effects: indirect radiative forcing through cloud formation effects
10. Dispersion of air pollutants
10.1. Introduction
10.2. Overview of air dispersion modelling
10.2.1. The transport equation
10.2.2. Turbulence parameterization
10.2.3. Chemical reactions and radioactive decay
10.3. Gaussian dispersion models
10.3.1. Theory and limitations of Gaussian models
10.3.2. History of development
10.3.3. Advanced Gaussian models
10.4. Lagrangian models
10.4.1. Calculation of trajectories
10.4.2. Puff models
10.4.3. Trajectory models
10.5. Eulerian models
10.5.1. Solving atmospheric transport equations
10.5.2. Operator splitting
10.6. Computational Fluid Dynamics models
11. Air pollution modelling
11.1. Adaptive gridding
11.1.1. Introduction
11.1.2. Adaptive gridding for simulating photochemical air pollution
11.1.3. Adaptive gridding for simulating accidental release
11.2. Parallelization
11.2.1. Introduction
11.2.2. Supercomputers, clusters, and Grids
11.2.3. GPU – Graphical Processing Unit
12. Deposition of air pollutants
12.1. Dry deposition of trace gases
12.1.1. Field measurements
12.1.2. Deposition/exchange models
12.1.3. Some results
12.2. Dry deposition of aerosol particles
12.2.1. Field measurements
12.2.2. Modelling the dry deposition of particles
12.3. Modelling of wet deposition
12.3.1. Wet deposition in Europe
13. Environmental effects of air pollution
13.1. The role of each pollutant
13.1.1. Carbon monoxide (CO)
13.1.2. Sulphur dioxide (SO2)
13.1.3. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)
13.1.4. Ozone (O3)
13.1.5. Particulate matter
13.2. Some effects on the environment
13.2.1. Smog
13.2.2. Acid rain
13.3.3. Crop and forest damage by ozone
14. The role of air pollution in the global climate change
14.1. Effects of atmospheric composition on the radiation budget
14.2. Anthropogenic perturbation of the greenhouse gases
14.3. Radiative forcing of atmospheric components
14.4. Future scenarios
14.4.1. SRES scenarios
14.4.2. Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs)
15. Monitoring of Air Pollution
15.1. Measurement locations
15.1.1. Classification of measurement sites
15.1.2. Measurement network in Europe and Hungary
15.2. Measurement techniques
15.2.1. Sampling methods
15.2.2. Measurement of gas concentrations
15.2.3. Measurement of aerosol concentrations
15.2.4. Remote sensing
15.2.5. Rainwater analysis
15.3. Conclusion
16. Questions: