Ethology practical

Vilmos Altbäcker

Márta Gácsi

András Kosztolányi

Ákos Pogány

Gabriella Lakatos

Péter Pongrácz

This book is freely available for research and educational purposes. Reproduction in any form is prohibited without written permission of the owner.

Made in the project entitled "E-learning scientific content development in ELTE TTK" with number TÁMOP-4.1.2.A/1-11/1-2011-0073. Consortium leader: Eötvös Loránd University, Consortium Members: ELTE Faculties of Science Student Foundation, ITStudy Hungary Ltd.


Table of Contents

I. Field ethology – Conducting behavioral observations in the Budapest Zoo
1. OBJECTIVES
2.INTRODUCTION
2.1 The design of a scientific research study
2.2 Components of behaviour
2.3 The subjects of an ethological study
2.4 How can we collect behavioural data?
3. MATERIALS
3.1 Location
3.2 Subjects
3.3 Materials
4. CONDUCTING THE FIELD OBSERVATION AT THE ZOO
4.1 Goals
4.2 Time range of the observations
4.3 Field report and data sheets
4.4 Written report
4.5 The evaluation of the report
5. LITERATURE CITED
II. The ontogeny of antipredator behavior in fish fry
1. OBJECTIVES
2. INTRODUCTION
2.1 Antipredator behaviour
2.2 Predator recognition
2.3 Inherited recognition of predators
2.4 Predator avoidance and the ontogeny
3. MATERIALS
3.1 Test subjects
3.2 Experimental device
4. PROCEDURE
4.1 Goal of the practical
4.2 Experimental process
4.3 Experimental groups
4.4 Data analysis and the presentation of the results
4.5 Preparing a report
4.6 Evaluation of the report
5. LITERATURE CITED
III. Search image formation in domestic chicken
1. OBJECTIVES
2. INTRODUCTION
5. LITERATURE CITED
IV. Operant conditioning in the practice
1. OBJECTIVES
2. INTRODUCTION
2.1 Theoretical Overview
2.2 General forms of learning
2.3 Operant conditioning as a training method: clicker training
3. MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1. Experimental animals and equipment
3.2. Procedure
4. DATA COLLECTION
4.1. Practicing the method on mates – shaping the behaviour
4.2 Operant conditioning with dogs
4.3. Preparation of a report
4.4. General evaluation – Considerations for the discussion
REFERENCES CITED
V. The effect of imprinting on the behaviour of domestic chicken
1. OBJECTIVES
2. INTRODUCTION
2.1 Filial imprinting
2.2 Sexual imprinting
3. METHODS
3.1 Tests
LITERATURE CITED
VI. The effect of early human contact on the timidity of rabbits
1. OBJECTIVES
2. INTRODUCTION
2.1 Conspecific recognition of hand raised rabbits
2.2 Conspecific recognition is based on smell in rabbits
3. METHODS
3.1 Experimental animals
4. STEPS OF THE PRACTICAL
LITERATURE CITED
VII. Study of chin marking behaviour in the european rabbit
1. OBJECTIVES
2. INTRODUCTION
2.1 Chemical communication in mammals
2.2 Sexual communication in the European rabbit
2.3 Chin marking in the rabbit
LITERATURE CITED
VIII. The effect of warning coloration on zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) boldness
1. OBJECTIVES
2. INTRODUCTION
2.1. Theoretical background of warning colorations
2.2 Aposematic coloration
2.3 Aposematism and mimicry
2.4 Animal personality and boldness
3. MATERIALS
4. PROCEDURE
4.1 Aims
4.2 Experimental steps
LITERATURE CITED
IX. Human sexual dimorphism
1. OBJECTIVES
2. INTRODUCTION
2.1 Background
2.2 Sexual dimorphism in humans
3. MATERIALS
3.1 Subjects and equipment
4. PROCEDURE
4.1 Aim of the study
4.2 Steps of the study
4.3 Preparation of the study notes
REFERENCES CITED
X. Human sexual selection: female and male preferences
1. OBJECTIVES
2. INTRODUCTION
2.1 Background
2.2 Body size
2.2 Preferred body ratios
2.3 Voice as sexual character
2.4 Preference for acoustical parameters
3. MATERIALS
3.1 Subjects and equipment
4. PROCEDURE
4.1 Aim of the study:
REFERENCES
XI. How intrauterine development affects later rank and anogenital distance in rabbits
1. OBJECTIVES
2. INTRODUCTION
2.1 Hormones and behaviour
2.2 Prenatal hormonal effects
AGD as a biomarker
Sexual differentiation in rabbits
Social system of rabbits
3. MATERIALS
3.1 Experimental animals and methods
4. Procedure
4.1 Goal of the practical
4.2 Steps to be followed:
LITERATURE CITED
XII. Risk taking in animals and humans: gender effects
1. OBJECTIVES
2. INTRODUCTION
3. MATERIALS AND METHODS
LITERATURE CITED
XIII. Huddling behaviour in mice
1. OBJECTIVES
2. INTRODUCTION
2.1 Animal groups
2.2 Types of groups
2.3 The cooperative mound- building mice
2.4 Conspecific and kin recognition in mice
2.5 Huddling
3. MATERIALS AND METHODS
4. PROCEDURE
4.1 The goal of the practical:
4.2 Steps to be done during the practical
LITERATURE CITED
XIV. Factors affecting the shoal formation in the zebrafish (Brachydaniorerio)
1. OBJECTIVES
2. INTRODUCTION
2.1 Costs and benefits of living in a group
2.2 Shoal formation in fish
2.3 Investigating shoal formation in the zebrafish
3. MATERIALS
3.1 Subjects
3.2 Testing aquarium
3.3 Experimental groups
4. PROCEDURE
4.1 Experiment 1: testing social attraction to conspecifics
4.2 Experiment 2: testing phenotypic features that may affect social attraction in the zebrafish
4. 3 Data analysis
LITERATURE CITED
XV. Aggression and dominance in the house mouse
1.OBJECTIVES
2. INTRODUCTION
2.1 Group formation
2.2 Aggression
2.3 Social rank
2.4 Communication and rank
2.5 The Social system of the house mouse
3. MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 ANIMALS
3.2 METHODS
4. PROCEDURE
LITERATURE CITED
XVI. Group effect on human vigilance during feeding
1. OBJECTIVES
2. INTRODUCTION
2.1 Group formation as a means to reduce predation risk
2.2 Grouping and vigilance in animals
2.3 Group size and level of vigilance in apes
3. MATERIALS
3.1 Studied subjects and necessary tools
4. PROCEDURE
4.1 Steps to be followed
4.2 Statistical analyses
4.3 Questions for discussion
LITERATURE CITED
XVII. Ethological study of the dog’s attachment behaviour
1. OBJECTIVES
2. INTRODUCTION
2.1 Theoretical Overview
3. MATERIALS
3.1 Subjects and tools
4 PROCEDURE
4.1 Practicing the method – coding behaviour variables (Video)
4.2 Strange Situation Test
4.2.1 Hypotheses and predictions
4.3 Preparation of the Report
4.4 General evaluation – Considerations for the discussion
LITERATURE
XVIII. Assessing the inner state of dogs based on their barks; is there difference between the nuisance level of the barks?
1. OBJECTIVES
2. INTRODUCTION
2.1 Dog-human communication
2.2 The acoustic communication of dogs, with emphasis on barking
2.3 Do humans understand dog barks?
2.4 Nuisance barking
3. MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Location
3.2 Subjects
3.3 Materials
4. PROCEDURE
4.1 Recognition of the context
4.2 Scoring of the inner states and the nuisance level
4. 3 Data analysis and presentation of the results
4.4. Evaluation of the practical report
LITERATURE CITED
XIX. Localisation of animals by radiotelemetry
1. OBJECTIVES
2. INTRODUCTION
2.1 Transmitter attachment
2.2 Receivers
2.3 Recieving antenna
2.4 Localization of the collared animals - Accuracy of locations
2.5 Direct localization versus triangulation
3. METHODS
XX. Methods to collect and analyse animal behaviour data
1. OBJECTIVES
2. INTRODUCTION
2.1 The way of investigating animal behaviour
2.2 Types of behavioural variables
2.3 Methods to record data
2.4 Tools for data recoding
2.5 Reliability and validity of measurements
2.6 Agreement between and within observers
2.7 Methods to test the agreement between observers
2.8 Descriptive statistics
2.9 Statistical hypothesis testing
2.10 Normal distribution, testing normality
2.11 Parametric and non-parametric statistical tests
2. 12 One-sample, two-sample, paired-sample and multiple sample statistical tests
2.13 Investigating the association between variables
2.14 Reporting the results of statistical analysis
3. MATERIALS
4. PROCEDURE
4.1 Task to be carried out during the practical
LITERATURE CITED
XXI. Practical statistics: how to use the program instat to analyse your data
1. OBJECTIVES
2. INTRODUCTION
2.1 Installing GraphPad InStat
2.2 The InStat Guide
2.3. Entering your data
2.4. Working with the data table
2.5. Compare groups
2.6. Print or export the results
2.7. View a the results as a graph in InStat
2.8. Record notes or append the results to the notes window
2.9. Analyze the same data with a different test
2.10. Perform the same analysis on new data
2.11. InStat files and formats
LITERATURE CITED