5.2. How to create a visitor-friendly exhibition?

(Andrea Kárpáti)

National museums cannot control the changing political meaning and psychological impact of historical objects; they are, nevertheless, aware of the political resonances of the objects they “objectively” put on display. In the National Museum of Scotland, the Declaration of Arbroath greets every visitor who enters the medieval section of the museum. A declaration of Scottish independence prepared in 1320, it converted the Pope to the Scottish cause of freedom against the English Norman king Edward II. When the then Museum of Scotland first opened in 1998, an independent Scotland seemed unlikely, but in 2012, its meaning is rather different. The Declaration is no longer just a reminder of Scotland’s proud past but a rallying cry for twenty-first century independence from the United Kingdom. The past again has political resonance; it is not neutral, academic or abstract. As long as only one hundred of us remain alive we will never on any condition be brought under English rule. National Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh.” (Dodds et al., 2012, p. 26.)

museum courtyard with a question painted on the tiled floor: „Are museums political?”

5.24. picture: “Are museums political?” – an intriguing question for visitors at the entrance of the Getty Art Institute in May 2013. Similar posters throughout make visitors reflect on the functions of the museum. (Photo: Andrea Kárpáti)

Museums are no longer ivory towers where relics of distant ages are safely kept. They are part of a changing social context that they have to respond to, or become obsolete. Interpretive planning means not just exhibiting but also explaining objects in a display. The essence of the planning process is to make visitors understand the meaning and significance of the items presented, and return home with new knowledge, not just experiences. Interpretive planning is not easy if you have no clear idea about the aspirations and background of your visitors. Curators and exhibition developers often have an optimistic view about their prospective visitors: they hope these are eager to learn, open to see novel and unexpected sights, enjoy challenges and have plenty of time to get acquainted with the text on labels and information panels. In fact, visitors have a variety of different objectives when entering museum gates, and, accordingly, different amounts of time to experience at least a part of what is on offer.

 “The real journey is not the discovery of new landscapes but the novel way we observe well-known scenes.” John H. Falk starts his essay “Identity and the visitor experience” (2009) with this quotation from Marcel Proust. Falk identifies five key types of museum visitors which we will summarize below. These are not personal qualities but roles that characterise visitor expectations. Even one visitor may exhibit characteristics of a different type when coming to a different collection with a different mood and mindset.

  1. Explorers: they are curious about museums and visit them because of interest. They are well-read but not experts, who mostly enjoy looking at new acquisitions or works in art styles they have never heard about before. They are comfortable with going around on their own, but are keen readers of labels and information consoles.

2.      Facilitators: they come to visit with friends and family whom they will guide through the connections. Some of them are parents or grandparents, others are socialisers. Parents are interested in enrichment programmes, informal learning opportunities for their children, and want to know the details and prices of these. Socialisers come with another adult (spouse, friend, relative) and will walk through the galleries chatting, barely looking at the objects.

3.      Experience Seekers: they are the “been there – done that” type of people who do not want to be left out. They want to have fun and see new things, but have no deep knowledge-seeking interests. Most of them are not too frequent museum visitors because the exhibitions normally do not satisfy their need for adventure.

4.      Professionals/Hobbyists: they are a small but influential group that includes museum staff, collectors, teachers, artists, policy makers and science communicators. Their visit is strictly professional: they know what they are looking for and will view the parts of the exhibition that are useful for their new project. These people are often Friends of Museums and are interested in special late-night openings, gallery talks and exhibition-related excursions.

5.      Rechargers: they need rest and inspiration, want to get away from their busy world and expect to find a quiet place full of interesting ideas in the museum. They enjoy social gathering places, like to linger in cafés and sculpture gardens, and pay little attention to the works exhibited.

Falk postulates that all these needs are related to the personalities of the visitor and will profoundly influence their encounter with the exhibitions.  If museum staff helps visitors satisfy their needs, they are more likely to come back with a more open to new experiences mindset.  Visitors return (or come for the first time) only if they feel that the museum will satisfy their identity related needs. If you know your visitors, you can plan around their expectations and predictable wishes and needs. (Duplessis, 2011)

Falk’s essay helps us understand one of the key components of the mission of museums: to serve Falk postulates that all these needs are related to the personalities of the visitor and will profoundly influence their encounter with the exhibitions. If museum staff help visitors satisfy their needs, they are more likely to come back with a mindset more open to new experiences. Visitors return (or come for the first time) only if they feel that the museum will satisfy their identity-related needs. If you know your visitors, you can plan around their expectations and predictable wishes and needs. (Duplessis, 2011)

Falk’s essay helps us understand one of the key components of the mission of museums: to serve their public. Research into identity-fulfilment indicates that visitors come to the displays with an agenda about the realisation of their self-concepts (for example, being a good parent, an erudite professional or a fun-loving friend). Many people want to find reinforcement of their value as experts in an area, and, if they can interact with museum staff (or at least with a well-constructed computer application), they feel they have contributed to the knowledge of their community. Others want to see themselves as creative individuals and are happy if they can actually make something during or after the visit. Many museum guides are volunteers, who come and offer their time and effort because they like to be useful, enjoy helping others and find personal fulfilment in volunteering. All these needs can be met by a crowdsourced exhibition (cf. Simon, 2010, Chapter 1) where visitors contribute with objects owned or made by them that are exhibited, or share narratives that potentially enrich the experience of others.

Video screen, table and instruments for book binding in a museum workshop.

5.25. picture: The video in this showcase storage room shows how objects made of paper (books, letters, etc.) are restored. Visitors may experiment with this process and other techniques for conservation and restoration, using the tools available on tables in the space. In this way, visitors may have a better idea about the efforts museum staff invests in keeping objects collected in good shape. Szentendre Open Air Museum, Showcase Storage, 2013. (Photo: Andrea Kárpáti)

Duplessis (2011) emphasizes that the museum visitor experience is neither about the museum nor the visitor but it is about the unique moment when both of these realities become one and the same.

–        “Visitors are the Museum and the Museum is the Visitor.

–        Need to think of museums and content not as fixed and stable entities but as intellectual resources capable of being experienced and used in different ways for multiple purposes.

–        Need to stop thinking about visitors as definable by some permanent quality or attribute such as age, gender or race – instead need to appreciate that every visitor is a unique individual and each is capable of having a wide range of very different kinds of visitor experiences.

–        RESULT – a model of the museum visitor experience that is framed around visitors identity related visitor motivations – the series of specific reasons that visitors use to justify, as well as organize their visit and use in order to make sense of their museum experience.

What is identity?Speaks to how others see us, as well as how we think about ourselves. Humans don’t have one single permanent identity – we use an ever changing set of identities to fit particular situations. Often unconsciously done – you sift through leisure options that will meet your needs and if a museum is a good fit – that is what will be chosen. Feels it is not only a descriptive framework but a predictive model that we can use to anticipate who will visit a museum, what they do there and what long-term meanings they make of their experience long after their visit. There is a lot of competition for leisure activities – if museums are going to keep their current popularity and success – they will have to get better at understanding and serving the visitor. His research showed that most leisure experiences aren’t initiated by a desire to see or do something specific but as a desire to fulfil a specific identity related motivation.” (Duplessis, 2011, p. 1.)

Interpretive planning means an integration of scientific and communication aspects. Bigger museums have special groups or departments for visitor relations and groups of explainers who review the plans and suggest modifications with different target groups in mind. The steps of an interpretive exhibition design are listed below (Spencer, 2001):

–        Interpretation of the scientific message of the exhibition and formulation of messages;

–        Definition of visitor groups;

–        Interpretation plan;

–        Communication plan (information transmission devices, programmes, publications, media exposure etc.)

–        Visitor routes: planning and modelling

–        Multimedia elements: selection and planning

–        Marketing plan

–        Evaluation plan with suggestions for adaptation / modification phases

–        Sustainability plan.

We summarise some of the phases of interpretive planning below.

Interpretation of the scientific message of the exhibition and formulation of messages

This phase is the most important component of the interpretive planning model. According to the intentions of the curator, exhibition developers and communication specialists select the objects or parts of the installation that they intend to highlight for different visitor groups. They also decide about the messages they want to transmit and ways that seem to be best for dissemination. For an art exhibition, messages related to the history of art and aesthetics may be associated with sociocultural ideas or results of cultural anthropology and thus relate the exhibition to contemporary visitor experiences.

An example from design: an exhibition about an important period in the history of fashion regularly includes information about the places of origin of the motifs and materials that designers use, the biological or social connotations of the designs and changes in meaning of materials and cuts during the years a certain model has been produced. Another example from science: an exhibition about recent results of gene modification technology naturally involves artistic reactions of the much discussed subject and results in film shows and debates being organised or art objects being placed among exhibits documenting scientific research.

For most of the exhibition content there are several communication options. However, installations that are clear and informative for an expert may not have the desired impact on a layperson. Not only the sequence of information provided but also the type of visualisation and the arrangement of objects in relation to explanatory images and text has to be considered by exhibition developers. They all convey meaning – and this is not always the same as the curator hoped to obtain.

5.1. graph: Examples of good and bad museum communication (Source: Spencer, 2001, p. 375.)

In museums that commemorate the life and work of an artist or researcher, a significant part of the exhibition is the presentation of the time period the master was active. Here, interesting parallels and connotations may be revealed and the oeuvre enriched with works of art, everyday items, memorabilia and explanatory text and images showing influential journeys or encounters that had an effect on the work of the person in the focus of the exhibition. Personal objects may be moving to look at in isolation, but if shown while in use, they are much more exciting. (An example: a presentation of the travels of Hans Christian Andersen in a diorama showing his suitcase, looking glass and a map of his extensive trips enchants visitors who have read his tales about distant lands).

pictures, old science equipment and flat TV screens in an exhibition.

5.26. picture: History depicted through images and things: Contemporaries of Andersen in the house where he was born. Lyngby, Andersen Museum, 2012. (Photo: Andrea Kárpáti)

When some concepts and artists’ names are selected as highlights for a display, their arrangement is always a difficult design problem to solve. To include them in labels and infosheets means we are (over-optimistically) hopeful that they will be duly read. To leave it for the catalogue to convey these important messages means the exclusion of the majority of visitors who never purchase one. At Tate Modern in London, visitors cannot escape the names of styles, artists, important geographical locations and basic concepts related to an exhibit because it is written on the corridor walls leading to the exhibition they are about to see.

Names of artists and styles written on a museum wall; visitor reading the text.

5.27. picture: Names of styles, artists, important geographical locations and concepts related to an exhibit on the walls of Tate Modern, London, 2012. (Photo: Andrea Kárpáti)

Definition of visitor groups, development of the interpretation plan

Making museums relevant is one of the biggest challenges of exhibition development. When defining visitor groups, we formulate a variety of messages (based on the main ones the curator of the exhibition developed when the display was planned) that our visitors will understand and appreciate. The interpretation plan is about getting the main ideas across through their connection to issues that visitors are aware of and find important.

“The main challenge seems now to be the move from ‘dialogue events’ to a dialogue culture. It is essential that dialogue is intended by the parties concerned not just as a new umbrella to reproduce the usual strategies, but as a concrete means of obtaining new results. That is, as a pathway to provoke a social and political change, however small. This implies a shift in focus from the methodologies of dialogue to its objectives. Science centres are indeed among the better placed institutions to achieve this. But they have still not exploited this opportunity fully. Let’s ask ourselves two questions. First: are science centres today the first place citizens think to go, when they want their voices to be heard on controversial issues involving scientific expertise? The answer, for the most part, is still no: science centres do organise exhibitions and events on controversial issues, from GMOs to vaccines to nanotechnology, but are very seldom used by pressure groups of citizens, watchdogs, whistle blowers or advocates of demand-driven research as a platform to actively defend their issues and reach their objectives. Second: are science centres today the first place scientists think to go, when they want to defend their viewpoints, to lobby, or to stage the competition among themselves for cultural and financial recognition? The answer, again, for the most part, is mostly no: science centres do organise debates on front-end current research, but have mostly failed to convince scientists to use them as a public stage on which, for example, to advocate for investment for the ITER reactor rather than for energy saving domestic appliances, or for string theory rather than loop quantum gravity research. These functions, essential for a dialogue to occur, are still mainly covered by the mass media, where the battles among scientific institutions for coverage and recognition are widely experienced by any science journalist.” (ECSITE, 2008, p. 3.).

A hamburger, a cola bottle and a candy bar are handles for weighs to be lifted.

5.28. picture: „Snack attack!” Three lifting weights indicate the amount of snacks and soda drinks an average teenager consumes during a year. The task: lifting what we have swallowed. YOU – The Experience exhibition, 2009, Museum of Natural History, Chicago. (Photo: Andrea Kárpáti)

Every exhibition has its own visitor group that is likely to find its content motivating enough to consider a visit. This group has to be targeted when interpretation decisions are made, while other potential visitor groups should be involved, too, with a less intensive strategy. In the Museum of Natural History[10] in Chicago, an exhibition entitled „YOU – The Experience” (2009) was organised to tell teenagers about their body and the ways it is used and abused. The exhibition (briefly discussed in Chapter 3 above), was meant for 14-18-year-olds and showed current research results about the synergy of body and mind, and the functioning of organs under normal circumstances and in exceptional situations. It explained how diet, exercise or drugs affect our health and, through interactive exhibits, called attention to other serious issues related to our body that teenagers rarely learn about, in order that they could take them seriously. 

Giant flat screen with text and pushbuttons.

5.29. picture: Visitor information collection device that targets advertisements of junk food. The device collects votes about a series of related topics. Visitors push buttons to vote and may read longer info texts or debate with fellow visitors sitting around the same falt screen. YOU - The Experience, temporary exhibition, 2009, Museum of Natural History, Chicago. (Photo: Andrea Kárpáti)

The exhibition developers of „YOU – The Experience” used interactive installations because their audience has a preference for them. They offered young visitors chances to express themselves and to find out exciting new things about themselves through the solution of psychological tests or medical examination tasks. All these edutainment solutions (discussed in more detail in Chapter 7) transmitted serious knowledge in a way not only teenagers but also their younger siblings and parents could understand – on different levels, of course. The exhibition employed unusual tour guides (nurses and doctors, consumer research specialists and food experts, for example) who offered insider information on topics much discussed in the home and the classroom. The attractive exhibits as well as the scientific accuracy of explanations made the exhibition a blockbuster hit – a rare achievement in the area of science communication in museums.

Targeting interest groups that span several age groups is a difficult planning issue that museum educators have to face when organising guided tours in a permanent exhibition and wishing to avoid the usual “walk through the ages” approach. In Tate Britain,[11] London, where visitors can enjoy an overview of different periods of art history, represented by masterpieces, a small and colourful series of booklets comes to sight: For Nature Lovers, For Gardeners, For Dog Keepers, For Travellers … to mention only a few of these thematic mini-guides that help visitors devoted to a hobby or entertaining an emotion find paintings and sculpture of particular interest while walking through the halls, and surely stopping by other works of art as well. One of the pocketbooks, For Lovers, shows how this theme captured the imagination of likeminded artists. One may consider a thematic type of walkthrough superfluous. However, this is a first encounter only, – when enjoyable, it will be followed by many more serious visits. For many people with less knowledge about art, the experience that connects their own hobby with a work of art is surely more intense than an endless procession through the halls, full of images with unfamiliar style and content.

Realisation of the interpretive plan

An exhibition plan based on the interpretive model should involve developing the following publications:

–        Scientific publications (catalogues and research papers);

–        Popular information about the exhibition (family guide, activity booklet, leaflet etc.);

–        Media reports;

–        Information in the exhibition: labels, banners, panels and charts;

–        Audio guides;

–        Sound effects and music in the halls;

–        Multimedia information boxes;

–        Exhibition home page and related internet sites;

–        Regular guided tours (with museum staff), tours with different types of guides (with artists, experts, representatives of different professions related to the display, local stakeholders, etc.)

–        Cultural events during the exhibition: research conference, gallery talks, film shows, theatre performances, etc.;

–        Educational events during the show: activities for schools, families, individual visitors;

–        Evaluation devices (methods of collecting visitors’ responses).

words written on a museum wall

5.30. picture: Words indicating desirable and undesirable visitor behaviour – a work of art that reflects on visitor management in museums at the Modern Art Museum in Lisbon, 2011. (Photo: Andrea Kárpáti)

We have already discussed major exhibition communication features influencing visitor motivation and experience. Here we want to emphasize again that every element of the exhibition has to be in harmony with the type of exhibition chosen and the visitor group(s) targeted. Also, the number of explanation devices depends on the type of display we organise. If it is a research-related science communication event, we need much more information material than in an art show, where the works are supposed to speak for themselves.

 

aquarium and small glass cases in front with with sea plants.

5.31. picture: Showing nature “in vivo” and “in vitro”: two types of installations for the same topic mutually reinforce each other. 2009. Rockford , Illinois, USA, Burpee Museum of Natural History. (Photo: Andrea Kárpáti)

Dentist’s consultation room with modern equipment and their descriptions on a wall chart.

5.32. picture: A homogenous exhibition style includes all the components of the display, from material and form of installation to letter types and colours of posters. Design Museum, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. 2009. (Photo: Andrea Kárpáti)

Communication plan (information transmission devices, programmes, publications, media exposure etc.

When we design information materials, first a style sheet is produced that includes all major design decisions for the show and the information materials. The exhibition development book includes letter types and colours, typesetting formats, representative images and key words to be used, plus other images and text to be employed, including major messages as well as points of interest that the media may find worth mentioning. Contemporary exhibitions have a full “product line” of souvenirs that bear the motifs of the most famous works of art, the most peculiar science equipment or funniest animal exhibited. Traditional museum publications are mainly scientific, but the current trend is the opposite: comic booklets, colouring books and tales about artists are meant to convince young audiences that museums are fun. In any case, decisions about the style and content of these supplementary materials – that will be, however, the only tangible remains of the display – should be designed in advance and in harmony with the intentions of the curator and other museum staff.[12]

Printed information materialsavailable for visitors as “cognitive souvenirs” of the display:

When we design information materials, first a style sheet is produced that includes all major design decisions for the show and the information materials. The exhibition development book includes letter types and colours, typesetting formats, representative images and key words to be used, plus other images and text to be employed, including major messages as well as points of interest that the media may find worth mentioning. Contemporary exhibitions have a full “product line” of souvenirs that bear the motifs of the most famous works of art, the most peculiar science equipment or funniest animal exhibited. Traditional museum publications are mainly scientific, but the current trend is the opposite: comic booklets, colouring books and tales about artists are meant to convince young audiences that museums are fun. In any case, decisions about the style and content of these supplementary materials – that will be, however, the only tangible remains of the display – should be designed in advance and in harmony with the intentions of the curator and other museum staff.[13]

Printed information materialsavailable for visitors as “cognitive souvenirs” of the display:

–        Exhibition leaflet: illustrated, with a short overview, supplementary programme schedule and promotion material, usually free of charge;

–        Illustrated guide: abridged version of the catalogue, richly illustrated, with popular introductory text to major works of the exhibition;

–        Info sheets in the exhibition areas to take away or read and leave behind on site;

–        Task sheet or booklet with a quiz or quest to be completed during the visit (special versions for kids with families, school groups and adults);

–        Teaching and visiting aids for teachers that explain how to prepare for the exhibition at school, how to organise the visit and guide the students on site, and finally, how to obtain feedback about experiences and utilise new knowledge and experiences after the visit.

information panel with visual illusion.

5.33. picture: A good example of an information panel: Demonstration of optical illusion with an inviting question in bold, large letters to lure young visitors to see the exhibit 2013. Children’s Museum, New Orleans. (Photo: Andrea Kárpáti)

Visitor routes: planning and modelling

Indications of directions, arrows and diagrams highlighting major installations or the exit are important parts of exhibition design. These communication devices manage the visit and are responsible for a safe and enjoyable passage through the halls. Therefore, it is not only the curator and explainer who define their placement and text but also the security personnel and the fire-protection officer.  At a blockbuster exhibition, it is impossible to wander around because other visitors define one’s own route and the time to be spent in front of an installation. These routes are usually linear as visitors are part of a crowd moving slowly and deliberately through the halls in the sequence indicated by the signs and guards. Normally, however, the individual visitor may decide to view the exhibition in a „hypertext” manner, walking from one piece to another because of some information just read or previously noted urges him or her to change the „correct” sequence indicated in the map or short guide. These visiting sequences may turn into a tiring run through what seems to be a labyrinth of an endless series of similar halls and corridors with no orientation signs. If there are clear indications of place, visitors easily find their way back to track after having followed their own routes for a while.

Icon of accessible entrance, restroom and meeting point and an arrow on a museum floor.

5.34. picture: Nicely designed and easy to follow signs on the floor of the Showcase Storage of the Szentendre Open Air Museum. (Photo: Andrea Kárpáti)

Museum floor plan with pictures of objects to be seen on different floors.

5.35. picture: Orientation point at the Getty Art Institute in San Francisco, 2013. Major works exhibited are clearly indicated through their shadow images. (Photo: Andrea Kárpáti)

Multimedia elements: selection and planning

When planning visitor routes, we have to consider the placement of multimedia devices that are likely to attract large crowds. Their types and functions we will discuss later, in Chapter 7, here we only summarize some planning aspects that are related to different exhibition types and styles.

Glass wall with photographs of shells and seaweed.

5.36. picture: Multimedia as work of art: its placement and accessibility has to be similar to other important works of the exhibition. Alberto Sampaio Museum, Guimarães, Portugal. 2008.  (Photo: Andrea Kárpáti)

Mother and child experimenting with digital laboratory equipment

5.37. picture: Multimedia station. 2009. Heureka Science Centre, Helsinki. (Photo: Andrea Kárpáti)

Multimedia consoles are best when they resemble edutainment products and not the pages of the catalogue. However, when they are interactive they have to be placed in corners where they can be accessed easily and where they are also accessible for maintenance. Computer supported solutions will be discussed in Chapter 7, here we only give a list of their types.

Their major function is to strengthen the message of the exhibition through added information and interactive experiences. The diagram below shows steps of their planning and integration in the communication tools of the exhibition.

5.2. diagram: Planning multimedia applications for an exhibition. (After Van der Donckt és Callebaut, 2001, Graph 7.8., p. 255, adaptation by A. Kárpáti)

Exhibition multimedia types:

–        Soundscape (special sound effects in one or several halls of the exhibition)[14];

–        Audio guide;

–        Interactive console;

–        Film played on flat screens placed near or built inside an object;

–        Animated map or diagram (e. g. led displays activated through push-buttons show information);

–        Virtual reality: events and persons animated through three-dimensional imaging (e. g. laser or holography);[15]

–        3D or IMAX film theatre (projection on a huge screen) in a special area of the museum;

–        A special vehicle with audio guide facilities takes visitors from one place to another. In some cases, visitors view the exhibits while sitting on a slowly moving vehicle;[16]

–        Simulation environment – for example, visitors are seated in a model car with screen projections of the landscape it runs through. The sounds and the shaking and swinging movement of the model contribute to the experience of motion.[17]

Developing a marketing plan

Every year the Museum Research Institute (Institut für Museumforschung) in Berlin[18] publishes developmental data of German public collections. The pace of growth is impressive and suggests an immense task of restoration and conservation, exhibition and interpretation. In other countries growth rates may be similar and so are the tasks – therefore, fundraising for their completion is a growing concern all over Europe. In a period of economic crisis, public collections cannot rely on government support only. Typically, a museum has to cover 35-40% of its expenses from the sale of entrance tickets, souvenirs, publications and renting facilities for events. The marketing plan of an exhibition includes the planning, production and sale of these “by-products”.

This plan includes the definition of the main marketing ideas: issues of public concern that may be highlighted in the media, advertisement options for cultural products that can be associated with the exhibition, and events that the museum can organise to support the scientific message of the show and generate additional income at the same time. Sponsors who may be interested in associating their name with the exhibition also have to be identified in this plan. The placement of advertisements about the exhibition in different media channels (from a large canvas hanging from the museum wall to TV spots) has to be co-ordinated with other communication types relating to the exhibition (labels, information leaflets, etc.) All these ought to have the same visual interpretation and design style.

Evaluation plan with suggestions for adaptation / modification phases

This plan includes the assessment methods of the exhibition and the timing of their introduction. Here are some forms of evaluation to be used in museums:

1.       Knowledge and attitudes analysis before the planning of the exhibition to decide the quality of information needed for visitors to understand it;

2.       Pilot study about the use of equipments before the opening of the exhibition. It should be done at a time when interactive tools are already in place, and utilised to test their accessibility and detect functioning errors caused by intensive use;

3.       Use and satisfaction surveys during the exhibition to see how the exhibition is used and perceived;

4.       Post-hoc knowledge and experience surveys to observe the long-term effects of the exhibition.



[10] Chicago, Science Museum, „YOU – The Experience” exhibition, September 2009 – February 2010.  Info booklet for students and teachers.

[11] Tate Britain, London: Exhibition leaflets.

[12] An excellent series of publications for young audiences: children’s art books  by the staff of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.

[13] An excellent series of publications for young audiences: children’s art books  by the staff of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.

[14] This video shows an example for location based sound streaming.

[15] An excellent example of the use of holography: the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield, Illinois, USA. The president and his associates and family members are shown in authentic environments through holographic images.

[16] In Los Angeles, at the EPCOT Theme Park, visitors explore new inventions while seated on a small electric train. At the Scotch Whisky Experience Heritage Centre in Edinburgh a moving walkway takes visitors around the workshops showing phases of the production of the drink.

[17] New imaging technology may be experimented with at the Parc du Futuroscope in Poitiers, France.

[18] Home page section of the Institut für Museumforschung, Berlin, with research studies and information about ongoing surveys: http://www.smb.museum/ifm/