Infrared Astronomy

edited by L. Viktor Tóth

L. Viktor Tóth

Sarolta Zahorecz

Csaba Kiss

lectors 
Valéria Póczos
Attila Moór

This book is freely available for research and educational purposes. Reproduction in any form is prohibited without written permission of the owner.

Made in the project entitled "E-learning scientific content development in ELTE TTK" with number TÁMOP-4.1.2.A/1-11/1-2011-0073. Consortium leader: Eötvös Loránd University, Consortium Members: ELTE Faculties of Science Student Foundation, ITStudy Hungary Ltd.


Table of Contents

Preface - The Fox's Secret:
1. Introduction – the discovery and use of infrared
1.1 Herschel and his discovery of infrared
1.2 Black body radiation – the first experiments of infrared radiometry
1.3 The photosphere of the Sun as a black body and the Herschel experiment
1.4 The infrared radiation of the human body
1.5 The use of infrared
1.2.1 Aerial or space infrared photography
1.2.2 Thermograms of small and large objects
1.2.3 Medical infrared thermography (MIT) or thermology
1.2.4 Arts and infrared
References and further reading to the chapter:
2. History of infrared astronomy
2.1 The Two-Micron-Sky Survey (also IRC or Caltech 2.2 micron survey)
2.2 Other important early discoveries with ground based telescopes
2.3 Balloon-borne infrared observatories
2.3.1 Far-Infared Spectrometer (FIS):
2.3.1 PRONAOS
2.4 Rocket flights
2.5 COBE
2.5.1 FIRAS
2.5.2 DMR
2.5.3 DIRBE
2.6 Development of IR instrumentation
References and further reading to the chapter:
3. Definition of infrared and the origin of the infrared radiation
3.1 The definition of the infrared band
3.2 The origin of infrared radiation
3.2.1 Atomic transitions
3.2.2 Molecular transitions
3.3 Radiation of molecules
3.3.1 Molecular hydrogen
3.3.2 Ices and other molecules
3.4 Radiation of dust
3.4.1 Heating and cooling of dust
3.4.2 Refractory dust
3.4.3 Silicates
3.4.4 Large dust grains
3.4.5 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
References and further reading to the chapter:
4. Transmission, background noise
4.1 Atmospheric transmission
4.2 Background radiation
4.2.1 Terrestrial background radiation
4.2.2 Airglow
4.2.3 Zodiacal light
4.2.4 Galactic cirrus emission
4.3 Subtracting background and foreground emission
References and further reading to the chapter:
5. Infrared photometry
References and further reading to the chapter:
6. All-sky surveys
6.1 IRAS
6.1.1    The most important results of IRAS:
6.1.2    Instruments and observing strategy of IRAS
6.2 MSX
6.2.1 Infrared dark clouds
6.3 AKARI
6.4 WISE
6.5 Planck
References and further reading to the chapter:
7. Infrared satellite observatories
7.1 Infrared Space Observatory (ISO)
7.1.1 Scientific instruments and observing strategy
7.1.2 Most important results
7.2 Spitzer Space Telescope
7.2.1 Scientific instruments
7.2.1 Most important scientific results
7.3 Herschel Space Observatory
7.3.1 Scientific instruments
7.3.2 Most important scientific results
References and further reading to the chapter:
8. The interstellar medium in infrared
8.1 The interstellar medium
8.2 The ISM in infrared
8.2.1 Hot ISM
8.2.2 HII regions
8.2.3 HI clouds
8.2.4 Molecular clouds
8.2.5 Calculating temperature and column density maps from FIR data
8.2.6 The structure of cirrus
References and further reading to the chapter:
9. Young stellar objects
9.1 Molecular clouds
9.1 YSOs on the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram
9.2 Classification of YSOs
9.3 Determining physical properties of YSOs
9.4 Protoplanetary disks
9.4.1 Growth of dust particles
9.5 Detailed analysis of YSOs in practice
References and further reading to the chapter:
10. Extragalactic infrared astronomy
10.1 Nearby galaxies
10.2 Luminous and ultraluminous galaxies
10.3 Gamma-ray bursters (GRBs)
10.4 Dust at high redshifts
10.5 The Cosmic Infrared Background
References and further reading to the chapter:
11. The infrared confusion
11.1 Confusion noise
11.2 Confusion limit
11.3 Confusion noise in the observed flux densities
11.4 The infrared confusion noise
11.5 Estimating the components of the infrared confusion noise
11.5.1 Sources of FIR emission in the Solar System
11.5.2 Interstellar medium
11.5.3 The cosmic infrared background
11.6 An example: The Herschel Confusion Noise Estimator
11.6.1. Importance of a sky confusion noise estimator for the Herschel Space Telescope
11.6.2 General comments
11.6.3 Cosmic infrared background:
11.6.4 Galactic cirrus
11.6.5 Measurement configuration
References and further reading to the chapter:
12. Appendix: Hungarian infrared studies
12.1 Properties of dust in galactic interstellar clouds
12.2 Time variable dust emission in young stellar objects
12.3 Infrared emission and dust properties in eruptive young stellar objects
12.4 The outburst of V1647 Orionis
12.5 The outburst of EX Lupi
12.6 Properties of debris dust
12.7 Properties of cosmic dust in high-z galaxies
References and further reading to the chapter:
13. Animated images