STRUCTURE OF PLANTS AND FUNGI

Edited by: Zoltán Kristóf

Pál Vági

Éva Preininger

Gábor M. Kovács

Zoltán Kristóf

Károly Bóka

Béla Böddi

This book is freely available for research and educational purposes. Reproduction in any form is prohibited without written permission of the owner.

Made in the project entitled "E-learning scientific content development in ELTE TTK" with number TÁMOP-4.1.2.A/1-11/1-2011-0073. Consortium leader: Eötvös Loránd University, Consortium Members: ELTE Faculties of Science Student Foundation, ITStudy Hungary Ltd.


Table of Contents

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. Organization levels
1.2. Autotrophy and body structure
1.3. The role of water
1.4. The transport process and the possibility of regulation on organism level
1.5. Specialities of plant secretion
1.6. Morphological and anatomical polarity of plants
1.7. Stem cells and cell plasticity in plants
1.8. The anatomical and physiological role of storage
1.9. Basic rules of plant reproduction
1.10. Alternation of generations in the plant kingdom
1.11. Genetic interpretation of the alternation phases
2. MORPHOLOGY
2.1. Seed and seedling
2.2. Root
2.3. Stem
2.4. Buds
2.5. Leaf
2.6. Flower, inflorescence
2.7. Fruit
3. CYTOLOGY
3.1. Characteristics of the plant cell
3.2. The cell wall
3.3. The vacuolar system
3.4. Plastids
3.5. Cell division
3.5.1. Mitosis
3.5.2. Meiosis
4. PLANT TISSUES
4.1. Meristems
4.1.1. Classification of meristems according to their origin
4.1.2. Classification of meristems according to position
4.1.3. Classification of meristems according to the cell division plane
4.2. Dermal tissue system
4.2.1. Epidermis
4.2.2. Rhizodermis
4.2.3. Secondary and tertiary dermal tissues
4.3. Ground tissue system
4.3.1. Parenchyma
4.3.2. Supporting or mechanical ground tissues
4.4. Vascular tissue system
4.4.1. Xylem
4.4.2. Phloem
4.4.3. Vascular bundles
4.4.4. Different types of stele
5. PLANT ORGANS (ORGANOGRAPHY)
5.1. Root
5.1.1. Longitudinal zonation pattern of the root
5.1.2. Primary tissues of the root
5.1.3. Secondary thickening of the root
5.2. Stem
5.2.1. Primary tissues of the stem
5.2.2. Secondary thickening of the stem
5.3. Secondary xylem (wood)
5.4. Leaf
5.4.1. Ontogeny of the leaf
5.4.2. Leaf anatomy
5.4.3. Leaf and environment
5.4.4. Abscission
6. Anatomy and reproduction of lower plants
6.1. Mosses
6.1.1. Hornworts (Anthocerophyta)
6.1.2. Liverworts (Hepatophyta)
6.1.3. Peat mosses (Sphagnopsida)
6.1.4. Granite mosses (Andreaeopsida)
6.1.5. True mosses (Bryopsida)
6.2. Pteridophytes
6.2.1. Club mosses
6.2.2. Spike mosses
6.2.3. Quillworts
6.2.4. Horsetails
6.2.5. Ferns
6.3. Gymnosperms
6.3.1. Cycads
6.3.2. Ginkgophytes
6.3.3. Conifers
6.3.4. Gnetophytes
7. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION OF ANGIOSPERMS
7.1. The flower
7.2. Microsporogenesis, microgametogenesis
7.3. Megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis
7.4. Pollination
7.5. Pollen tube grows
7.6. Fertilisation
7.7. Embryo development
7.8. Endosperm development
8. Fungi
8.1. The fungal cell
8.1.1. The fungal cell wall
8.1.2. The fungal cell membrane
8.1.3. The flagellum
8.1.4. The nucleus
8.1.5. Cell division
8.1.6. Special cell organelles
8.2. Organization of fungi
8.2.1. Thallus
8.2.2. Unicellular organization
8.2.3. Hyphal organization
8.2.4. Mycelium, tissue
8.3. Characteristics of hyphal growth
8.4. Reproduction of fungi
8.4.1. General characteristics of sexual reproduction of fungi
8.4.2. Sexual reproduction and its structures in the main fungal groups
8.4.3. A complex life cycle
8.4.4. Asexual reproduction of fungi
8.4.5. Asexual reproduction in the main fungal groups
8.5. Plant-fungal interactions
8.5.1. Mycorrhizae
8.5.2. Endophytic fungi
8.5.2. Plant pathogenic fungi
8.6. Lichens
Bibliography